Read e-book online A brief history of computing PDF

By Gerard O'Regan

ISBN-10: 144712359X

ISBN-13: 9781447123590

This energetic and engaging textual content strains the major advancements in computation – from 3000 B.C. to the current day – in an easy-to-follow and concise demeanour. subject matters and contours: excellent for self-study, supplying many pedagogical beneficial properties corresponding to chapter-opening key themes, bankruptcy introductions and summaries, workouts, and a word list; provides specific details on significant figures in computing, comparable to Boole, Babbage, Shannon, Turing, Zuse and Von Neumann; experiences the background of software program engineering and of programming languages, together with syntax and semantics; discusses the development of man-made intelligence, with extension to such key disciplines as philosophy, psychology, linguistics, neural networks and cybernetics; examines the effect on society of the advent of the non-public machine, the realm extensive net, and the advance of cellular phone know-how; follows the evolution of a few significant know-how businesses, together with IBM, Microsoft and Apple.

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1. Moorish Spain became a centre of learning, with Islamic and other scholars coming to study at its universities. Many texts on Islamic mathematics were translated from Arabic into Latin, and these were invaluable in the renaissance in European learning and mathematics from the thirteenth century. 27 The Catholic Monarchs refer to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille who married in 1469. They captured Granada (the last remaining part of Spain controlled by the Moors) in 1492. 28 The origin of the word ‘algorithm’ is from the name of the Islamic scholar Al-Khwarizmi.

This would allow them to participate in the pharaoh’s building programme. The Egyptians were familiar with geometry, arithmetic and elementary algebra. They had techniques to find solutions to problems with one or two unknowns. A base 10 number system was employed separate with symbols for one, ten, a hundred, a thousand, a ten thousand, a hundred thousand and so on. These hieroglyphic symbols are represented in Fig. 3: For example, the representation of the number 276 in Egyptian Hieroglyphics is given by Fig.

These include the hyperbolic geometry discovered independently by Bolyai and Lobachevsky and elliptic geometry developed by Riemann. The standard model of Riemannian geometry is the sphere where lines are great circles. The material in the Euclid’s Elements is a systematic development of geometry starting from the small set of axioms, postulates and definitions, leading to theorems logically derived from the axioms and postulates. Euclid’s deductive method influenced later mathematicians and scientists.

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A brief history of computing by Gerard O'Regan

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