By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This publication is the main entire reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by means of nearly 11 thousand humans situated essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in accordance with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main whole description so far of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive remedy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams through the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few young ones converse the language. even supposing extra childrens one of the Mississippi Choctaws examine the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to protecting the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely very important. Compiled through the prime scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic consultant to local audio system and an imperative instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
17) Holisso '=pisaachi '-mat Pam. ' When the subject is first or second person, the copula a must appear: (18) Holisso'=pisaachi ' si-ya-h. ') The overt copula a also appears when the sentence is in the past or distant past or when the sentence appears with a modal. (20) Hattak-mat Bill aa-tok. ' (21) Hattak-mat Bill a-ttook. ' (22) Hattak-mat Bill a-ahila-h. , siyah 'I am'). ' Unfortunately, the copula is the only verb showing such 1. Nicklas (1974:36) cites the example Nakni a tok 'He was a man' with a short a before the tense marker, but the vowel is clearly long for speakers I consulted.
3. Basic syntactic typology Choctaw is a configurational language with consistent head-final constituent ordering. It shows a mix of head-marking and dependentmarking patterns. This chapter gives an overview of the structure of simple sentences and discusses its place in syntactic typology. 1. 1. Sentences with only third person arguments The simplest sentences in Choctaw consist of a verb plus a tense marker, as in the following examples: (1) Qba-tok. rain-FT 'It rained. ' (2) Niya-h. ' (3) Pisa-tok.
1. Assimilations with -1i The verbal suffix -1i (discussed in chapter 8) is associated with a somewhat idiosyncratic set of assimilations. Ulrich (1986) contains a comprehensive discussion of the subject, and should be consulted for details. 2. Rules applying in grades There are also some rather complex morphophonological rules associated with the verbal grades, treated in detail by Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986). See chapter 10 for a description of the phonology of grade formation. 6. 1. The standard view of glottal stop insertion I follow Ulrich (1986, 1993) in regarding the glottal stop as an additional consonantal phoneme of Choctaw, but the issue is controversial.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD