By Alan Gladwell
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Extra resources for Advances in Physics
2. 6° a handle connected to it turns. The wiper is connected to a voltmeter, and the circuit is powered by a 120V power source with negligible internal resistance. What is the reading on the voltmeter when the handle turns 120°? 3. 8Ω is connected to 3 resistors with conductances of 3, 2 and 1 Siemens. A voltmeter is connected across the 3 and 2 Siemens resistors. An ammeter is placed in the circuit, between the battery and the first terminal of the voltmeter, and reads 2A. What is the reading on the voltmeter?
2. How much energy is dissipated by a 10W component in 1 hour? 3. 5 A. 2 kJ of energy is required to heat a litre of water to 100°C. Assuming 100% efficiency, how long does it take to boil 1 litre of water? 4. How much energy is dissipated by a 100Ω resistor in 10 seconds if 2A of current are flowing? 5. 6 x 10-19 C. How long does it take for a mole (6 x 1023 particles) of electrons to flow through a 40W light bulb on a 240V ring main? Resistance and Conductance Conductance is a measure of how well an artefact (such as an electrical component, not a material, such as iron) carries an electric current.
The resistances add up, so, in a circuit with two resistors: ΣR = R1 + R2 If we apply Ohm's law, remembering that the current is constant throughout a series circuit: Multiply by current (I): ΣV = V1 + V2 So, just as the resistances in series add up to the total resistance, the potential differences add up to the total potential difference. The ratios between the resistances are equal to the ratios between the potential differences. In other words, we can calculate the potential difference across a resistor using the formula: In many cases, you will be told to assume that the internal resistance of the power source is negligible, meaning that you can take the total potential difference as the EMF of the power source.
Advances in Physics by Alan Gladwell