By Richard Folkson
Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation
The fact that they are liquids means that vehicles can be fully re-fuelled in two or three minutes and the shape of the tanks containing them can be more easily adapted to available vehicle package space with simple vapour recovery systems and without the additional requirements for cooling systems required by electrochemical storage systems. 2 Vehicle cost Key to enabling the widespread availability of sustainable transport is to provide solutions which customers can afford to purchase. Renewable liquid fuels satisfy this criterion by enabling the evolution of vehicles and fuel distribution infrastructures which are broadly compatible with current technologies.
1 Introduction: competing fuels and energy carriers The drive to reduce dependency on fossil fuels over recent years has focused attention on the use of alternative fuels for transport, particularly in the USA, where the use of biofuels blended into fossil fuels has been adopted. When they are made from feed stocks which satisfy appropriate sustainability criteria and do not give rise to the emission of significant levels of greenhouse gases in their cultivation, biofuels can help to alleviate concerns regarding energy security and climate change within the road transport sector which, globally, is over 90% dependent on oil (IEA, 2010).
2000). 22 Alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies If mechanical and electrical losses are also considered, the total energy used for compression of hydrogen to an 800 bar supply pressure may reach around 15% of the higher heating value (HHV) of the hydrogen undergoing the process (Bossel, 2006). With a liquid hydrogen approach the energy efficiency of liquefaction plants is strongly dependent on size. For a largescale plant about 40% of the higher heating value is consumed in the liquefaction process.
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation by Richard Folkson