American Youth Violence (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) - download pdf or read online

By Franklin E. Zimring

ISBN-10: 0195121457

ISBN-13: 9780195121452

ISBN-10: 1423760042

ISBN-13: 9781423760047

Long ago decade, alarming studies of teen violence have seemed with expanding frequency within the information media. Legislators around the usa have answered to this feeling of nationwide emergency by way of altering the various legislation designed to deal with juvenile offenders. yet are we actually in the course of a surge in adolescence violence? extra to the purpose, what reasons adolescence violence and what should still we do approximately it? Franklin Zimring bargains the definitive exam of adolescent violence within the usa either as a social phenomenon and a coverage challenge. This ebook covers the variety of youngster violence matters within the Nineteen Nineties, from crime facts to demographic projections to new laws. the result's a radical debunking of Congressional predictions of "a coming hurricane of sweet sixteen violence" and the half-baked coverage proposals that accompany such warnings. The booklet units forth accomplished and dispassionate analyses of 3 key components of teen violence coverage: adolescent firearms ownership and use, criteria for move from juvenile to legal courtroom jurisdiction, and criminal sanctions for young people who kill. during the ebook, the center problems with early life violence within the Nineteen Nineties are tested with an unparalleled measure of analytic rigor. Zimring additionally bargains a suitable set of responses to formative years violence which are in step with a good destiny for the juvenile courtroom and for America's little ones. well timed and authoritative, American adolescence Violence supplies scholars, students, and coverage makers a much-needed software with which to style a optimistic reaction to 1 of the nation's most annoying social ills.

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Rape arrest rates increased after 1988, reaching a high 32 percent above the 1980 level in 1992, but dropped back by 1996 to the lowest rate recorded at any time since 1977. Robbery arrest trends differ from the others in two respects. While arrest rates for other violent crimes went up after 1984, robbery arrests declined in six of the first eight years of the 1980s and reached their lowest level of the 1980s in 1988. From 1988 to 1994, the arrest rates increased but were never more than 20 percent above the 1980 baseline.

The male-to-female ratios for younger offenders in robbery are also significantly higher than the gender ratio for adults. It is only for assault that younger male offenders are not pronouncedly more numerous. The most plausible explanation for the hyperconcentration of younger males in the arrest statistics is that the cultural forces that push male rates to extreme levels during adolescence do not operate in that fashion for females. It is not a dearth of female offenders that drives the male-to-female arrest ratios so high in the midteens; it is the peak incidence of male violence that is the only moving part.

Whereas all the state-level reforms discussed have the juvenile offender as their principal target, two other components of the new imagery of youth violence are guns and gangs. Gun use by juveniles accounted for over 90 percent of the increase in juvenile homicide over 1985-1992 (Zimring 1996). The surge in gun violence presented a target for getting tough that was more in keeping with traditional liberal sentiments than wholesale transfer of juveniles to criminal courts. In short order, the 1990s witnessed a federal gun-free schools act, state laws making handgun possession by minors either prohibited or more severely punished, and a variety of special enforcement efforts from federal and local police that were directed at juvenile gun possession and use.

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American Youth Violence (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) by Franklin E. Zimring


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