By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unequalled within the annals of event commute. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. very good attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage in the course of the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from world wide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are unique. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a zone that's drawing more and more viewers who, just like the adventurers prior to them, are occupied with the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.
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He sailed into a large bay that narrowed into a channel ﬂanked by dark, brooding cliffs. Magellan knew he had found the elusive strait, to everyone’s joy and relief. “The Captain General was determined to sail as far as 75 degrees south latitude, where there is no night, if he had not found this passage to the sea,” wrote Pigafetta. During their passage through the treacherous strait, they faced strong currents that foamed over hidden rocks and winds that howled down from the stark, snowcapped peaks.
Icy winds numbed the mariners’ hands, THE SEARCH FOR TERRA AUSTRALIS INCOGNITA 17 and sleet soon saturated their government-issue jackets and trousers. The goat was bundled in an extra coat but the hogs and sheep died from constant drenchings of cold spray. Joseph Banks and his entourage explored the botanical offerings of the bleak but beautiful landscape on a ﬁne January morning. Within hours, sudden bitter winds and blinding snow squalls surprised the unprepared men. Huddling for warmth, the group survived—except for Banks’s two servants, who had frozen to death during the night.
High Treasons and Petty Treasons, Pains, Penalties and Paupers, that they will seize the ﬁrst opportunity they can to . . make a question of national honor about a foot-hold . . ” Adams’ ﬁnal recommendation was to send a navy frigate “to take possession. . There can be no doubt of the right . . ” In the fall of 1820, bold statements appeared in a number of newspapers and journals claiming that Americans had not only known about the Shetland Islands but had hunted seals there for years. However, no logbooks ever surfaced to justify such claims, and no seal carnage blighted any beaches at the time of Smith’s initial discovery.
Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy