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Additional resources for Before Life (Life on Earth)
Although sandstone, shale, siltstone, and mudstone can contain certain amounts of material from organic origin, limestone and chalk are almost entirely made of the skeletons and shells of ancient sea creatures. Chalks and limestones are principally made from calcium carbonate, but limestones contain the shells of larger creatures, making them denser and harder. 63 IT’S A FACT In special conditions a rock called oolitic (“egg stone”) limestone is created. It comprises grains of calcium carbonate coated with layers of yet more calcium carbonate, cemented together.
IT’S A FACT Shield volcanoes are so called because their lava is low in silica and fluid, so that the volcano shape becomes domed or shieldlike. Shield volcanoes are typically submarine, and often form chains of islands where they breach the surface of an ocean. The Hawaiian group are shield volcanoes, with Hawaii itself being the largest volcano in the world. © DIAGRAM Hawaii 48 Earthquakes and tsunamis In the Earth’s crust, seismic activity at subduction zones and rift valleys generally causes longitudinal movement— the landmasses are either heading straight toward, or away from, one another.
It is said to have a pyroclastic texture, after the pyroclastic flow down the sides of volcanoes from which it originates. 62 Sedimentary rocks Chalk This soft rock is made from the calcareous remains of planktonic animals. Making coal These illustrations show how a layer of organic sediment gradually becomes compressed by other layers until it eventually turns into coal. S EDIMENTATION TYPICALLY OCCURS at the bottom of still water bodies fed by rivers, such as lakes, seas, and oceans. It can also occur in slow-flowing rivers, estuaries, flood plains, and deltas.
Before Life (Life on Earth) by Diagram Group