By Henry N. Houérou
Masking a space of over one hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent incorporates a staggering geographic range. accordingly, it really is characterized by means of tremendous variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to a variety of average plants and flora and fauna, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this booklet, Henry Le Hou?rou offers his bioclimatic and biogeographic category of Africa. The wide information give you the foundation for comparisons among numerous African areas, and with areas on different continents similar to Latin the US or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, local and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural examine facing features resembling plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of purposes also are tested.
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Additional info for Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa
2-month time lag (Gasques and Magalhaes 1987). e. over the past 150 years (Le Houérou 1959a, b, 1969, 1994a, c, d, 2005a, b; Le Houérou and Aïdoud, unpublished data). In fact, there has most likely been none since ca. p. Dendrochronological studies on cedar trees (Cedrus atlantica) from the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco record tree rings dating back some 1,000 years ago, show that the recent Sahel drought is not unprecedented in terms of length and severity. Several lengthy droughts occurred in the Middle Atlas of Morocco over the past 7 centuries, in particular during the periods 1240–1365, 1395–1420, 1490–1550 and 1610–1640, and also some long high-rainfall periods during 1010– 1120, 1430–1480 and 1750–1780 (Stockton 1985).
South of the Tropic of Capricorn, the situation is much more complex since there are, in South Africa, both summer and winter rains. The proportion of these vary from N to S and W to E, as shown in Fig. 30. The proportion of summer rains varies from 85% at the tropic to less than 20% at the SW tip of the continent between the Cape of Good Hope and the mouth of the Orange River. As a consequence, Mediterranean-type vegetation and crops are restricted to the areas having less than 40% of summer rains, corresponding to a large proportion of the South African arid zone (Le Houérou 1994b).
S. dimidiatum & S. americanum), Pemba grass Tripsacum laxum, Guatemala grass Selection of afforestation species for the hot tropics in function of rainy season length A. Common species more or less tolerant to drought. e. to short rainy seasons (90–180 days in an approximate decreasing order of tolerance to drought; N = native, E = exotic; see also Table A14) N Leptadenia pyrotechnica N Hyphaene thebaica (phreatophyte) N Capparis decidua N Salvadora persica (phreatophyte) N Acacia ehrenbergiana N Faidherbia albida (phreatophyte) N Grewia tenax E Prosopis juliflora (phreatophyte) N Acacia tortilis subsp.
Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa by Henry N. Houérou