Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable by David M. Mousdale PDF

By David M. Mousdale

ISBN-10: 1420051245

ISBN-13: 9781420051247

A considerate dialogue of a well timed subject

Evaluating a wealth of quantitative data, Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable improvement discusses forms of biofuels, the technological know-how in the back of their construction, the economics in their advent to undefined, their environmental affects, and their implications for international agriculture. It broadens the dialogue on biofuels past bioethanol and biodiesel, bearing in mind the knowledge, principles, and bioproducts that experience seemed over the past fifty years.

An Insider’s examine the Biotech undefined

Written by means of a professional professional within the biotech undefined, the ebook analyzes intimately the current prestige and destiny customers of biofuels, from ethanol and biodiesel to biotechnological routes to biohydrogen. It emphasizes the methods biotechnology can enhance technique economics in addition to facilitate sustainable agroindustries and an important components of a biobased economic system. the writer additionally explores the extra techniques required in microbial and plant biotechnology, metabolic engineering, bioreactor layout, and the genetic manipulation of novel biomass species of vegetation, equivalent to softwoods and algae.

The function of Biofuels sooner or later

With over 1,000 references and approximately 2 hundred graphs and tables of information, this well-researched, entire paintings examines the prior and current of assorted biofuels whereas contemplating the way forward for a biocommodity economic climate.

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17) for the higher oil bills by achieving continued growth. To meet the challenges of energy costs, the Second National Development Plan (1975–1979) decreed the rapid expansion of indigenous energy infrastructure (hydroelectricity) as well as nuclear power and alcohol production as a major means of import substituting for gasoline. In the next decades, some of these macroeconomic targets were successfully realized. Growth rates were generally positive after 1973, and historically massive positive trade balances were recorded between 1981 and 1994.

34,35 Starch is usually a mixture of linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) polyglucans. 13 OH OH OH O O HO OH Amylose (portion) O O O HO O O HO OH OH O OH HO O HO OH OH O O O HO OH OH O O HO OH OH O O HO OH Chemical structures of glucose, disaccharides, and components of starch. 14). Cereal-based ethanol production plants use the same biochemical operations but replace malted grains with α-amylase and other polysaccharide-degrading enzymes added as purified products. 36 The oil price shocks of the early 1970s certainly focused attention on ethanol as an “extender” to gasoline, but a mix of legislation and economic initiatives starting in the 1970s was required to engender a large-scale bioprocessing industry; in particular, three federal environmental regulations were important:37,38 • The 1970 Clean Air Act (amended in 1977 and 1990) began the requirement for cleaner burning gasoline and (eventually) the mandatory inclusion of “oxygenates,” that is, oxygen-rich additives.

88 Technologies for bioethanol manufactured from nonfood crops appear, therefore, to warrant further attention as energy-yielding processes capable of narrowing the considerable gap in energy gain and expenditure that exists between corn-derived ethanol production and the oil industry. Why the large discrepancy between corn-derived and lignocellulosic ethanol? Intuitively, lignocellulosic substrates are more intractable (and, therefore, more costly to process) than are starches. As all practitioners of mathematical modeling appreciate, the answer lies in the assumptions used to generate the modeling.

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Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable Development by David M. Mousdale

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