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Additional info for Biofuels: Policies, Standards and Technologies
Carbon Gasoline No. 4 Boiling temperature, °F 172 80–437 370–650 Research octane no. 5 2 – Motor octane no. (1) Freezing point, °F Centipoise @ 60° F Flash point, closed cup, °F Reid vapour pressure, psi Blending Reid vapour pressure, psi Heat of Vaporization, Btu/lb @ 60° F Auto-ignition temperature, °F Flammability limits, vol% Btu/lb air for stoichiometric mixture @ 60° F Mixture in vapour state, Btu/cubic foot @ 68° F Fuel in liquid state, Btu/lb or air Specific heat, Btu/lb °F Stoichiometric air/fuel, weight Volume % fuel in vaporized stoichiometric mixture Biofuels: Policies, Standards and Technologies World Energy Council 2010 40 Table 6: Summary of benefits and drawbacks in using bioethanol as a gasoline substitute Benefits Drawbacks Categories Advantages Engine performance Emissions Better combustion efficiency Lower HC and CO (without consideration of evaporative emissions) Lower emissions related to aromatic compounds Lower VOC emissions (for ethanol blends) Lower sulfur contents Reason Operability in high compression ratio engine due to its high octane Increases in volumetric efficiency from cold manifold Faster laminar flame speed of oxygenated fuels Possibly lean combustion More complete combustion/ lean – combustion Less aromatic octane enhancers Less volatile organic compounds Derived from organic feedstocks Disadvantages Less power output Possibly poor combustion characteristics Higher particular HC emissions, such as acetaldehyde (ethanol), formaldehyde, methane, ethylene and acetone Higher carcinogenic evaporative emissions (for the blends with small-tomedium ethanol fractions) Reason Less heating value (per mass) Phase separation Unique ethanol oxidation path High evaporative pressure/ Distillation temperature High volatility Engine durability E20 can reduce injector tip for a gasoline direct injection engine.
9 million, which can yield about 3 billion cubic meter of biogas annually. 25 million tonnes of fossil fuel oil per annum. Other possible biomass resources include aquatic plants such as water hyacinth and municipal wastes, both of which constitute major environmental problems. Biofuels: Policies, Standards and Technologies World Energy Council 2010 32 3. Production and EndUse Technologies General Aspects Biofuels development has different drivers: the need to diversify energy mix, mandatory requirement for blending with conventional fuels, government support for the production, use and marketing of biofuels, legal frameworks and agricultural policies, just to name a few.
Using molecular markers, genetic maps of great detail and accuracy have been developed for many crop species. Markers are particularly useful for analysing the influence of complex traits like plant productivity and stress tolerance and are being employed to develop suitable cultivars of the major crops. Generation of genetically modified transgenic plants with a range of added traits uses advanced recombinant DNA techniques including genetic engineering and cloning. Several transgenic cultivars of major food crops, such as soybeans, maize, canola, potatoes and papayas, have been commercially released incorporating genes for resistance to herbicides, insects and viruses.
Biofuels: Policies, Standards and Technologies by World Energy Council