By Anders Pape Moller, Wolfgang Fiedler, Luo Yiqi
Temperature and different weather variables are presently altering at a dramatic price. Birds are first-class version organisms, with a truly lively metabolism, they're hugely delicate to environmental alterations and as hugely cellular creatures also they are super reactive. This ebook discusses our present wisdom of saw adjustments and gives instructions for experiences within the future years as a way to record and know how styles of fixing climatic conditions could impact birds. some of the chapters are written via top specialists in those fields and enlighten a large diversity of elements in chicken ecology. * presents studies of long term datasets * accommodates meta-analyses of reports approximately weather swap results on birds * comprises instructions and proposals for additional reports
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49 50 51 51 52 57 61 61 61 64 66 I. SUMMARY Ringing recovery datasets at ringing centres cover large areas and long timespans, and, therefore, they are interesting for investigating long-term changes in bird migration. However, heterogeneity of data in terms of ringing activity, recapture and re-sighting efforts and recovery probabilities as well as reporting probabilities of recoveries on a temporal and spatial scale are major obstacles to such analyses. Among 30 species of short-distance or partial migrants from Germany we found evidence for significantly increased proportions of winter recoveries within a distance less than 100 km in recent years in nine species.
Indications in brackets are based on p , 0:1; all other results are based on p , 0:05: Plus indicates an increase, minus a decrease, O not significant results; fields were left blank when test was not performed Species German data (this study) Soutullo (2003) Perioda Winter recoveriesa Latitudea Distancea Medianb Migration tendencyc Latitude (1960 – 1997) Latitude (1909 – 1959)d 1965– 1996 1925– 2000 1950– 1973 1929– 2000 1660– 1986 1922– 2002 1928– 2001 1954– 1991 1927– 2001 1953– 1986 1950– 2001 1928– 2002 1928– 1994 þ O þ O þ þ O þ O O O O O O O þ O þ þ O O O (þ ) þ þ O O O 2 O O 2 (2 ) (2 ) O (2 ) 2 (2 ) 2 1973 1972 Mid 1974 1970 1982 1985 1982 Mid 1973 1977 Mid 1967 1953 1966 1983 O O O O 2 O 2 O 2 O þ 2 O O þ þ O O 2 2 O O 2 þ O þ O O 2 O 62 Phalacrocorax carbo Ardea cinerea Tadorna tadorna Anas plathyrhynchos Buteo buteo Accipiter nisus Falco tinnunculus Fulica atra Haematopus ostralegus Charadrius hiaticula Vanellus vanellus Larus ridibundus Larus canus Siriwardena and Wernham (2002) O O Columba oenas Columba palumbus Motacilla alba Prunella modularis Turdus merula Turdus philomelos Sturnus vulgaris Fringilla coelebs Carduelis chloris Carduelis carduelis Pyrrhula pyrrhula Emberiza schoeniclus 1978– 2001 1922– 1999 1950– 1992 1934– 1979 1995– 2002 1924– 2000 1925– 2001 1927– 2002 1922– 1980 1928– 1998 1954– 1976 1962– 1992 e 63 Number of species tested Evidence for wintering closer to breeding grounds Evidence for wintering farther away No trend detected/more complex changes a þ þ O O 2 þ þ O 2 þ 2 O O O O O O O O O þ þ O O O 2 2 O þ O 2 O þ O O O 9 10 (11) 8(13) 15 66 27 (30) 38 3 (3) 3 (3) 5(5) 5 11 (11) 11 (11) 17 (16) 17 (12) 51/2 28 (25) 24 (24) 30 Mid 1970 1967 1968 1975 1971 1964 1965 1977 1975 1971 1973 1979 O O 2 O 2 2 O O O O O O 73 See Table 1.
2001). Recently, Siriwardena and Wernham (2002) used the recovery database of birds from Britain and Ireland to calculate indices of migratory tendency which can be used for a variety of analyses, including detection of changes in migratory behaviour. Soutullo (2003) was the first to show relationships between mean wintering latitude and climate variables in this dataset. We analysed selected data from three German ringing centres “Helgoland” (Northern Germany, active since 1909), “Hiddensee” (area of the former German Democratic Republic, active since 1964) and “Radolfzell” (Southern Germany, active in the current region since 1947) to explore the value of German recovery data for investigating temporal changes in bird migration behaviour.
Birds and Climate Change by Anders Pape Moller, Wolfgang Fiedler, Luo Yiqi