By Shelley Ann Bowen Hatfield
This ebook examines for the 1st time the army campaigns on each side of the border opposed to Apaches and different local peoples within the overdue 19th century. Mexico and the us pursued comparable targets of their Indian rules. Railroad, mining, and agricultural pursuits grew on the cost of local peoples. Indian resistance in Mexico was once frequently met with pressured exertions and relocation or extermination established upon scalp bounties. U.S. Indian coverage within the Southwest dictated keeping apart local peoples on reservations. The social ills their guidelines created persist this day in either international locations.
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Extra resources for Chasing shadows: Indians along the United States-Mexico border, 1876-1911
Francisco Bulnes, an engineer and politician, wrote in 1899 that a tropical climate, alcohol, and a poor diet kept the Indian at a subhuman level. He added that the Indian was degenerating further and that extinction was inevitable. 4 The Indian's capacity as a worker in the industrialization process was considered limited, and education would take time. Mexico needed to modernize, and the fastest way to do so would be the importation of foreigners to hasten Mexico's industrialization. 5 The first efforts to attract foreigners began in 1877.
1 The concentration of Apaches on the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona territory exacerbated problems, and in 1877 Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches fled the reservation. The United States began a formal campaign against the Warm Springs Apaches in 1879. Victorio, the able leader of the Warm Springs band, was killed by Mexican forces in 1880, but Page 3 the Apache threat was not over. Mescaleros fled New Mexico to join the remnants of Victorio's band in Chihuahua. S. policy isolating Indians on reservations as wards of the federal government was not viable.
Mexican troops had entered the United States from Chihuahua in 1872 in pursuit of hostile Indians. S. border authorities had received an order to capture and imprison Mexican troops entering the United States, the incident had been quietly settled. Lieutenant Colonel William R. Shafter maintained that this 1872 crossing was the second Mexican invasion in six months, Mexican forces having stayed in the United States fortyfive days in one case. In reference to Mexican troops crossing the border, Brigadier General Edward Ord, commander of United States troops in Texas, testified that he had no objections.
Chasing shadows: Indians along the United States-Mexico border, 1876-1911 by Shelley Ann Bowen Hatfield