By R. J. Prince (auth.), Dr R. M. Mortier, Dr S. T. Orszulik (eds.)
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Additional info for Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants
It was concluded that, in addition to methyl group migration, isomerisation of the double bond could also take place, even with the monomer. Since polyalphaolefins derived from internal olefins usually give products with inferior temperature/viscosity properties, double bond isomerisation can be a problem. The analysis of products from the oligomerisation of long chain alkenes can be difficult, therefore the oligomerisation of low molecular weight alkenes has been used as a model. , 1979). Only internal alkenes were found and the structures obtained were believed to derive from intramolecular 1,2-hydride shifts and some tail-to-tail coupling of monomer units.
Side chain removal may lead to the loss of some beneficial molecules which have good lubricant performance and are still non-waxy. In contrast, solvent de-waxing separates only those molecules which have crystallised under the conditions of de-waxing. Since there is always some good oil trapped in the filter cake of wax, there is also a loss of useful molecules in solvent de-waxing, but these molecules are not the same as those lost by the catalytic route. The cracking of alkanes initially produces unsaturated, low molecular weight by-products which can polymerise and, through coke formation, cause a rapid loss of catalyst activity.
Solvents in commercial use include sulphur dioxide (historically important, but rare nowadays), phenol (use is in decline), furfural (the most widely used) and N-methylpyrrolidone (increasing in importance). N-methylpyrrolidone is gaining in popularity for new units and conversions because it has the lowest toxicity and can be used at lower solvent/ oil ratios which saves energy. Each distillate or bright stock stream is processed separately, because different process conditions are needed to obtain optimum results for each base oil grade.
Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants by R. J. Prince (auth.), Dr R. M. Mortier, Dr S. T. Orszulik (eds.)