By Clara Sue Kidwell
The present-day Choctaw groups in principal Mississippi are a tribute to the facility of the Indian humans either to conform to new occasions and to discover shelter opposed to the skin global via their distinctiveness. Clara Sue Kidwell, whose great-great-grandparents migrated from Mississippi to Indian Territory alongside the path of Tears in 1830, right here tells the tale of these Choctaws who selected to not circulate yet to stick at the back of in Mississippi.As Kidwell exhibits, their tale is heavily interwoven with that of the missionaries who tested the 1st missions within the sector in 1818. whereas the U.S. govt sought to “civilize” Indians during the employer of Christianity, many Choctaw tribal leaders in flip demanded schooling from Christian missionaries. The missionaries allied themselves with those leaders, regularly mixed-bloods; in so doing, the alienated themselves from the full-blood parts of the tribe and hence did not in attaining frequent Christian conversion and schooling. Their failure contributed to the becoming arguments in Congress and through Mississippi electorate that the Choctaws will be circulation to the West and their territory opened to white settlement.The missionaries did identify literacy one of the Choctaws, even if, with ironic results. even if the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830 pressured the Choctaws to maneuver west, its fourteenth article only if those that desired to stay in Mississippi may possibly declare land as contributors and remain within the nation as deepest voters. The claims have been principally denied, and those that remained have been usually pushed from their lands by means of white purchasers, but the Choctaws maintained their groups by way of clustering round the few males who did get identify to lands, through protecting conventional customs, and by means of carrying on with to talk the Choctaw language. Now Christian missionaries provided the Indian groups a automobile for survival instead of assimilation.
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Extra info for Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818-1918
Now the United States was in a position to dictate boundaries, and in 1816, inspired by ''a liberal and judicious distribution of ... presents," the Choctaws signed the Treaty of Fort St. Stephens, giving up part of that land and establishing the eastern boundary between their territory and the United States. In exchange, they received an annuity of six thousand dollars a year for twenty years. 26 The outcome of the War of 1812 had fueled a growing sense of American pride and nationalism, and now unrestrained access to the vast reaches beyond the Mississippi encouraged rapid westward migration.
Choctaw Villages, Nineteenth Century 16 2. Choctaw District Divisions and Land Cessions, 1830 110 3. American Board of Missions and Schools, 18181830 125 4. Choctaw Lands, 1830 143 5. Contemporary Choctaw Reservation Communities 197 Page ix Preface In 1931, John Swanton declared: "The Aboriginal Choctaw seem to have enjoyed the enviable position of being 'just folks,' uncontaminated with the idea that they existed for the sake of a political, religious, or military organization.... " 1 In 1934, Angie Debo published The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, a history of the tribe during their removal from what is now the state of Mississippi, the subsequent reestablishment of the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory, and its political destruction as Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma.
11 But French colonial policy was not purely for commercial interests or military diplomacy. As minister of a deeply Catholic country, Cardinal Richelieu saw religion as integral to colonizing efforts. The Company of the Isles in America (established in 1635) was bound by its contract with the French government to maintain priests to convert "the savages" to Catholicism. "12 Slogging through floods and swamps and facing hostile natives, French Jesuits went forth to convert the Indians. If their mission was dangerous (three Jesuits were killed), their physical torment was extreme.
Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818-1918 by Clara Sue Kidwell