By Professor Joshua Shanes
The triumph of Zionism has clouded recollection of competing varieties of Jewish nationalism vying for strength a century in the past. This examine explores other ways to build the fashionable Jewish kingdom. Jewish nationalism emerges from this e-book as a Diaspora phenomenon a lot broader than the Zionist stream. Like its non-Jewish opposite numbers, Jewish nationalism used to be at the start a stream to nationalize Jews, to build a latest Jewish country whereas concurrently overlaying its very modernity. This publication strains this approach in what used to be the second one biggest Jewish neighborhood in Europe, Galicia. The background of this very important yet a great deal understudied group of Jews fills a severe lacuna in latest scholarship whereas revisiting the wider query of the way Jewish nationalism - or certainly any smooth nationalism - was once born. in response to a large choice of assets, many newly exposed, this learn demanding situations the still-dominant Zionist narrative through demonstrating that Jewish nationalism used to be part of the emerging nationalist routine in Europe.
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Additional info for Diaspora Nationalism and Jewish Identity in Habsburg Galicia
4 percent of Jews (the latter overwhelmingly in foodstuffs and textiles, which they dominated). 5 4 5 Max Rosenfeld, Die polnische Judenfrage (Vienna, 1918) 72–80. Some other studies give lower numbers. , The Jews in Poland (Cracow, 1992), 205–22. Here the numbers did not drop signiicantly in later years. 6 percent of the town population in western Galicia. Rosenfeld, op. , 75–7; Thon, op. , 20. 1 percent by 1910. Ben-Zion Rubstein, Galizia un ihr Bevölkerung (Warsaw, 1923), 109. Nearly one-third of Jews remained in rural villages throughout this period (versus 80–90 percent of non-Jews), while urban Jews increasingly lived in cities of over 5,000 inhabitants.
44 Broadly speaking, the Haskalah was an intellectual movement that sought to integrate Jews into European society as Jews, without denying their constituting a particular group. 46 In short, it sought “some sort of golden modernizing 41 42 43 44 45 46 Jerzy Holzer, “Enlightenment, Assimilation, and Modern Identity: The Jewish Elite in Galicia,” Polin 12 (1999): 79–85; Israel Bartal, “‘The Heavenly City of Germany’ and Absolutism a la Mode d’Autriche,” 33–42. ” Mahler, Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment, 32.
They were especially concerned that acculturating Jews be drawn to German rather than Polish. Grodziski, op. , 65. ” Myovich, op. , 250–1. For examples of the older view, see Mahler, A History of Modern Jewry, 330–3 and Artur Eisenbach, The Emancipation of the Jews in Poland 1780–1870 (Oxford, 1991), 55–7. For a recent revision, see Nancy Sinkoff, op. , 202–25. On the 1785 legislation, see Myovich, op. , 262–78 and Sinkoff, op. , 215 ff. It also rescinded an earlier attempt at promoting occupational change, the ban on Jewish leaseholding which caused widespread destitution, and dramatically reduced other tax burdens.
Diaspora Nationalism and Jewish Identity in Habsburg Galicia by Professor Joshua Shanes