By Gunther Kolb
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Extra resources for Fuel Processing: for Fuel Cells
The activation energy for OHÀ migration in the membrane was twice compared with that observed for protons in fully hydrated Naﬁon indicating that OHÀ mobility is strongly temperature dependent . 5 Effects of Crossover on DMFC Performance and Efficiency Methanol crossover through the polymer membrane is known to be one of the most challenging problems affecting the performance of DMFCs . The overall efﬁciency of a methanol fuel cell is determined by both voltage and faradaic efﬁciency for the consumption of methanol .
76]. 3 Historical Aspects of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Development and State-of-the-Art methanolic residues decreased progressively for all catalysts, whereas the peak shifted towards lower potentials on account of the decrease of the activation energy for CO removal. By comparing the behavior of the various catalysts, it was observed that the 30% Pt-Ru/C sample was characterized by the largest stripping area per unit of weight. Yet, the stripping peak potential at each temperature was shifted towards negative values for the 85% PtRu/C catalyst.
These ions migrate to the anode reducing methanol crossover by the electroosmotic drag. The alkaline environment allows the use of non-noble metal catalysts (usually unstable in the acidic environment); in fact, catalyst corrosion and membrane degradation problems are signiﬁcantly mitigated due to the high pH . Accordingly, cheap catalysts and hydrocarbon-only membranes have been explored [90, 91, 95, 96]. There are, however, some drawbacks which concern the formation of a pH gradient between anode and cathode , the need of cathode humidiﬁcation (protonic membranes based DMFCs are usually fed by dry air) and the need to increase the operating temperature to enhance conductivity, which may be not useful for portable applications.
Fuel Processing: for Fuel Cells by Gunther Kolb