By Mary Jane Warde
A accomplice soldier, pioneer service provider, rancher, newspaper writer, and city builder, George Washington Grayson additionally served for 6 many years as a pace-setter of the Creek kingdom. His lifestyles paralleled the main tumultuous occasions in Creek Indian and Oklahoma historical past, from the aftermath of the path of Tears via global battle I.As a diplomat representing the Creek humans, Grayson labored to form Indian coverage. As a cultural dealer, he defined its ramifications to his humans. A self-described revolutionary who encouraged English schooling, constitutional executive, and fiscal improvement, Grayson additionally used to be an Indian nationalist who liked conventional values. while the Creeks confronted allotment and lack of sovereignty, Grayson sought how one can accommodate switch with no sacrificing Indian identity.Mary Jane Warde bases her portrait of Grayson on a wealth of fundamental and secondary resources, together with the large writings of Grayson himself.
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Extra info for George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843-1920 (Civilization of the American Indian, 235)
Decision making traditionally employed oratory that recalled ancient times, looked to their forefathers for guidance, and reviewed historic events as a means of reaching consensus. All Creeks who heard these deliberations knew who their people were, how powerful and respected they had been, and the calamities that had overtaken them. Around home fires, too, elders told the stories to children and grandchildren, teaching them their people's history along with the values and behavior expected of a Muskogee.
The earlier settlers included members of the Lower Creek McIntosh faction; the newcomers were his long-time antagonists and executioners. Circumstances beyond their control forced them to share the assigned Indian Territory lands. 44 Times remained extremely hard. The federal government fulfilled inadequately, if at all, its promise to provide subsistence to immigrating Creeks for one year. The immigrants threw up rough shelters and hunted with bows and arrows in the game-rich woodlands, but poverty, malaria, apathy, and other diseases of the body and spirit continued to debilitate and demoralize the nation for some time.
While this study is not intended to recount Creek history as a whole, the duration of Grayson's involvement in national affairs, well past Debo's stopping point at tribal dissolution, necessitates extensive coverage of Creek history as well as the breaking of new ground. Second, a biography of Grayson, in the third Anglo-Muskogee generation of his family, offers a case study in ethnicity. Karen I. Blu's The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People (1980) points out that American Indian communities identify and categorize their members according to their own markers, in a system very different from the "blood quantum" utilized by the federal government in Grayson's day and currently in use among many modern tribal governments.
George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843-1920 (Civilization of the American Indian, 235) by Mary Jane Warde