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Extra resources for Giant Planets of Our Solar System. Atmospheres, Composition, and Structure

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The abundance of ``heavy'' elements (which in this context refers to elements heavier than helium) is found, or estimated, to be approximately 3±5 times the solar value for Jupiter, $10 times the solar value for Saturn, increasing to 30±50 times the solar value Sec. 2. Total thermal-infrared radiation ¯ux (W m À2 ) emitted by the giant planets as a function of latitude (Ingersoll, 1990). While some belt/zone variations are visible, the emitted ¯ux is to a ®rst approximation independent of latitude.

We shall return to this in Chapter 5. The large obliquity of Uranus may be evidence of an o€-center impact by a single planet-sized body into Uranus towards the end of its accretion phase. 6 Gyr ago. It has even been speculated that this cataclysmic event may have extinguished the internal heat source by e€ectively turning the planet inside-out causing the planet to release most of its internal energy soon after formation rather than gradually like the other giant planets! 2c. 4 Neptune Although Neptune is farther from the Sun than Uranus, and thus receives less sunlight, its bolometic temperature is very similar to that of Uranus, indicating a strong source of internal heat.

While 90% of the Jovian vortices are anticyclonic, only 10% are cyclonic and the most well-known of these are the NEBn brown barges, which appear at the boundary between the NEB and the North Tropical Zone (NTrZ) and were particularly prominent during the Voyager encounters. , east to west, or west to east), and the winds alternate in direction in association with the belts and zones. The zonal wind speed on Jupiter varies particularly rapidly with latitude and is puzzlingly strong at the equator, reaching speeds of 100 m/s in the eastward direction.

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Giant Planets of Our Solar System. Atmospheres, Composition, and Structure by IRWING P. G. J.

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