By Isaac Asimov
Strains the clinical discoveries that resulted in our wisdom of the character and substance of the solar.
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Additional info for How Did We Find Out About Sunshine?
Their studies set up a background for the first fluid mechanical classification of the secondary flows proposed by Prandtl (1926). ” and that this phenomenon combines two wide classes. , time-averaged) vorticity enhanced through vortex stretching. Secondary currents observed in curved pipe and river bends or meanders are typical examples provided by Prandtl to illustrate this type of secondary flow. Prandtl goes even further and proposes that the effect of secondary flows on sediment dynamics explains why “where they can, rivers always follow a winding course (‘meandering’)” (Prandtl, 1952, p.
He deduced that the transverse gradients of the Reynolds shear stresses u0 1 u0 2 and u0 1 u0 3 are mostly responsible for the generation of secondary flows along channel corners, while the effects of the normal stresses u0 2 u0 2 and u0 3 u0 3 and the shear stress u0 2 u0 3 , highlighted by other researchers based on the momentum and vorticity equations, are of secondary importance. , Demuren and Rodi (1984)). More recently, Yang and Lim (1997) used the mean flow energy balance to hypothesize that the surplus mean energy in any arbitrary flow volume will be transferred along the direction towards the nearest boundary.
Reproduced, with permission, from Zimmermann, A. 2009. Experimental investigations of step-pool channel formation and stability. D thesis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 10) Left: Comparison between measured and predicted bankfull width using Yalin and da Silva’s regime equations (2001) for gravel-bed streams. 5Wpred. Right: comparison between the measured and predicted aspect ratio using Yalin and da Silva’s regime equations (2001) for gravel-bed streams. 1) Model setup and results for the simulations by Van De Wiel and Coulthard (2010): (a) initial elevations (Z) in the idealized rectangular catchment; (b) temporal distribution of rainfall (top, P) and simulated discharge at the catchment outlet (bottom, Q); (c) intraday bedload yield (Qs, red) and flow discharge (Q, blue) at the catchment outlet.
How Did We Find Out About Sunshine? by Isaac Asimov