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136. 137. 138. 139. 140. g. the fermentation of cells and sensitive microorganisms or bioconversion with immobilised enzymes, low shear stress is of crucial importance for the optimal course of processes. Starting with the causes of particle stress, the following report discussed the hydrodynamic principles of the most frequently used model reactors and bioreactors, which are required for an approximate calculation of stress. The main part of the report describes the results of systematic investigations into the hydrodynamic stress on particles in stirred tanks, reactors with dominating boundary-layer flow, shake flasks, viscosimeters, bubble columns and gas-operated loop reactors.

5 Methods for the Determination of Stress . . . . . . . . 2 Investigations with Living Organisms . . . . . . . . . 49 Model Particle Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ Biotechnology, Vol.

52 53 55 55 59 61 62 65 65 67 67 67 68 68 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0055 [mm/s] Hole diameter of gas distributor Particle diameter Maximum inside flask diameter Tank diameter or tube diameter or height of rectangular channel n2d/g, Froude number Acceleration due to gravity Vertical height of impeller blade Distance impeller to bottom of reactor Fill height Particle Stress in Bioreactors kd kLa K m n N No Ne NeS Ne* p po P Pa P/Xt q qF Q r r1 r2 Re t Ta tD tF v vL u uax u¢ vS V VD VI Vd w X x; y z zF zI zL a d e e– 37 1/t · ln(No /N), death rate Gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient Consistency index Flow exponent Revolutions of impeller or shaker machine Number of cells at actual time Number of cells at the beginning of stress experiments P/rn3d5 , Newton number for impeller systems P/rn3dS5 , Newton number for shake flasks Newton number for viscosimeter, corresponding to Eq.

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