By Schramm, Helmar, Helmar Schramm, Ludger Schwarte, Jan Lazardzig
This quantity offers a suite of unique papers on the intersection of philosophy, the historical past of technology, cultural and theatrical reports. in response to a sequence of case stories at the seventeenth century, it contributes to an figuring out of the function performed via tools on the interface of technology and paintings. The papers pursue the speculation that the improvement and building of tools make a great contribution to the opening of new fields of information, the advance of latest cultural practices, but additionally to the delineation of specific genres, equipment, and disciplines. this angle leads the authors to mirror anew on what actually defines an tool and to strengthen a chain of easy inquiries to ensure what an device is - which activities does the device include? which activities does the tool make attainable? - whilst do the items of exam themselves develop into tools? what talents are required to take advantage of an device, which talents does it produce? With its mixture of latest theoretical types and historic case reports, its specific demonstration of the mutual effect of artwork and technology with the tool because the aspect of intersection, this quantity enters new territory. it truly is of significant worth for all these drawn to the heritage of our belief of tools. along with the editors, the authors of the papers are: Jörg Jochen Berns, Olaf Breidbach, Georges Didi-Huberman, Peter Galison, Sybille Krämer, Dieter Mersch, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann, and Otto Sibum.
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Additional resources for Instruments in Art and Science: On the Architectonics of Cultural Boundaries in the 17th Century
6. X-Ray Crystallography X-ray structure analysis is another molecular technique that was first applied to polymers in the context of organic fiber research in the 1930s. Here the intersection with the biological object of investigation takes the form of a particular physical object, a crystal (fig. 3). What cannot be crystallized does not exist as an epistemic object for this technology. X-ray crystallography contributed decisively to a biophysical view of the basic structures of life. In the eighteenth century, the crystal analogy was already a favorite metaphor, and it found multiple uses in the nineteenth century.
We can take the kymographion of Carl Ludwig as an example (fig. 1). In the context of this registration device the point of intersection takes on the form of a genuine lesion, if not mutilation. The apparatus developed by the Leipzig physiologist Ludwig allowed the measurement of blood pressure in a living animal. In the process, a “communicator” connected the open wound of the animal with the curve registration part of the machine. In his work on nineteenth-century laboratory physiology, Sven Dierig has argued extensively that the success of the instrument, that is, of obtaining reliable blood pressure curves, depended critically on the form and the properties of this interstitial piece.
Zweite, ganzlich umgearbeitete Auflage der Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik. Zweiter Theil. Morphologie, Organologie. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1846. Strasser, Bruno. La fabrique d’une nouvelle science. La biologie moléculaire à l’âge atomique (1945-1964). Florence: Olschki, 2006. Virtual Laboratory for Physiology. ”1 And in his work On Arithmetic, Aristoxenus added that he also “freed dealing with numbers from its practical uses . . and explained things as being a picture of numbers. ”2 This understanding of mathematics as a pure science (mathémata) became dominant, removed from all direct uses and finding its sole purpose in the formulation of general rules and the demonstration of their validity.
Instruments in Art and Science: On the Architectonics of Cultural Boundaries in the 17th Century by Schramm, Helmar, Helmar Schramm, Ludger Schwarte, Jan Lazardzig