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By C. K. Raju

On inventory Western historical past, technology originated one of the Greeks, after which constructed in post-renaissance Europe. This tale used to be fabricated in 3 levels.

First, throughout the Crusades, medical wisdom from the world over, in captured Arabic books, was once given a theologically-correct foundation by way of claiming it used to be all transmitted from the Greeks. the foremost instances of Euclid (geometry) and Claudius Ptolemy (astronomy)—both concocted figures—are used to demonstrate this method.

Second, through the Inquisition, international medical wisdom used to be back assigned a theologically-correct foundation by means of claiming it was once now not transmitted from others, yet was once “independently rediscovered” through Europeans. The situations of Copernicus and Newton (calculus) illustrate this technique of “revolution via rediscovery”.

Third, the appropriated wisdom used to be reinterpreted and aligned to post-Crusade theology. Colonial and racist historians exploited this, arguing that the (theologically) “correct” model of medical wisdom (geometry, calculus, etc.) existed basically in Europe.

These tactics of appropriation proceed to today.

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He is right, of course: mathematically speaking, one has only to add or subtract the earth-sun displacement vector to move from one model to another. Furthermore, it is always necessary to transform to a geocentric model for comparison with observations. The 13th c. 40 Varahamihira,41 and then Brahmagupta, came down heavily on Aryabhata for this claim, the latter derogatorily referring to him as bhata (a pun on bhatta intended to emphasize Aryabhata’s low caste, hence ignorance). Even many of Aryabhata’s followers were apologetic on this point (and it made no material difference).

The Toledo translations were done by two sets of people through an intermediate language: the Mozarabs who knew Arabic but not the subject nor any Latin, and the “official” translator who knew Latin, but not the subject nor the original language. 22) Thus, the “almost nothing” that we supposedly know about “Euclid” is based on a passage from another text: the Commentary on the Elements by Proclus. 23 This particular isolated passage24 not only names Euclid, but also attributes to him a philosophy of mathematics that is strikingly at variance with the Neoplatonic philosophy that the rest of Proclus’ book advocates.

Euclid: Geometry and mathematics We saw that even Needham thought that real mathematics and science began with deduction, a tradition supposedly started by Euclid. But what exactly do we know about Euclid? 20 However, other historians insist that the right answer is “almost nothing”. Let us decide between these two possibilities! Euclid supposedly wrote a key geometry text called the Elements. Naturally, people suppose (on the strength of the story) that the name “Euclid” is found in front of manuscripts of the Elements.

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Is Science Western in Origin? by C. K. Raju

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