By Alan Graham
This e-book is a special and built-in account of the heritage of North American crops and paleoenvironments over the last 70 million years. It comprises discussions of the trendy plant groups, causal elements for environmental switch, biotic reaction, and methodologies. The historical past finds a North American plants that's monstrous, immensely advanced, and dynamic.
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Extra resources for Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation: North of Mexico
Quaking aspen is dominant in the aspen-parkland association that forms one transition between the boreal coniferous forest and the northern part of the grassland formation. The aspen-parkland association is often serai (temporal), as evidenced by the frequent uniform size of the trees in individual stands. , and various Ericaceae (heaths), although these are mostly part of the low Arctic tundra. ), ferns (Osmunda), and lycopods (Lycopodium). The northern region of the forest is abundant in lichens and is often treated as a separate phase called the lichen woodland.
And L. L. Wallace. 1990. Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK. Crutzen, P. J. and J. G. Goldammer. 1993. Fire in the Environment. Wiley, New York. Elliott-Fisk, D. L. 1988. The boreal forest. In: M. G. Barbour and W. D. ), North American Terrestrial Vegetation. K. pp. 33-62. Franklin, J. E 1988. Pacific Northwest forests. In: M. G. Barbour and W. D. ), North American Terrestrial Vegetation. K. pp. 103-130. Coward, S. , C. J. Tucker, and D. G. Dye. 1985.
Balsamea; in the south it is replaced by A. fraseri (fraser fir), a closely related species that may have evolved via founder effect mechanisms in relatively recent times. The principal spruce throughout is Picea rubens (red spruce). Associated with the coniferous element is Betula papyrifera in the north, B. lutea (yellow birch) throughout the range, and Rhododendron (azalea, rhododendron) on exposed slopes in the south. Western Montane Coniferous Forest Rocky Mountains Region The Rocky Mountains are the most continental of the western mountain chains.
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation: North of Mexico by Alan Graham