By H.A. Lorentz
LECTUEES ON THEOBETICAL PHYSICS brought on the collage OF LEIDEN by way of H. A. LORENTZ permitted TRANSLATION through L SILBERSTEIN, Pir. I., AND A. P. Jl. TKIVKLLl quantity I AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER versions EDITED UY II. BREMEKAMP, Pn. I. KINETICAL difficulties EDITED JBY E. D. BRUINS, Pu. D., AND J. REUDLER, Pii. D. Osmania college HYO - i. MACMILLAN AND CO., restricted ST. MARTINS road, LONDON 1927 COPYRIGHT revealed IN nice BRITAIN by way of It. okay. CLARK, constrained, EDINBURGH PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION a chain of admirably transparent and instructive classes of lectures, overlaying primarily virtually the entire box of Theoretical Physics, have been brought by way of Professor Lorenf z on the collage of Leiden. Seven of those classes, relating topics of primary significance, have been, as much as 1922, edited via Lorentzs students and released within the Dutch language. in the course of Professor Lorentzs stopover at within the usa in 1922 the plan was once conceived to make those classes of lectures available to. English readers. After a few hold up necessitated through conditions the current quantity I. is being issued. It comprises the English model of 2 of those classes of lectures, viz. Aether Theories and Aether versions, edited within the Dutch language by means of Prof. H. Bremekamp, and Kinetical difficulties, edited through Dr. E. D. Bruins and Dr. J. Heudler. to maintain the ordinary attraction of Lorentzs personal kind and exposition the interpretation of those lectures has been made as literal as used to be suitable with the character of the English language. just a only a few adjustments or explanatory additions have been made within the textual content. The latter are put in sq. brackets. Volumes II. and III., now in training, will comprise the remainder 5 lecture classes, specifically, Thermodynamics, Entropy and likelihood, thought of Radiation, idea of Quanta, and the primary of Relativity for Uniform Translations precise conception of Relativity. lately, 1925, another process lectures, on Maxwells conception, was once introduced out at Leiden, and preparations might be made to incorporate its English model into this ebook. L. S. A. P. H. T. ROCHESTER, N. Y., July 1926. CONTENTS AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER versions I. ABERRATION of sunshine PACK 1. Stokes 1 concept The Earth drags the encircling Aether . . three 2. pace strength in an Incompressible Aether ... 6 three. Plancks conception. Compressible Aether .... 7 four. Fresnels conception. fastened Aether ..... 12 five. Dragging Coefficient ....... thirteen 6. idea of Aberration ....... 14 7. Michelsons test . . . . . . .19 eight. Contraction towards movement ..... 23 II. MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES nine. Maxwells Equations ....... 24 10. The Magnetic strength as speed. Neumanns concept of sunshine . 26 eleven. the electrical strength as pace. Fresnels conception of sunshine . . 29 12. conception of Elasticity. McCullaghs Aether .... 30 thirteen. Quasi-rigid Aether 31 14. Quasi-labile Aether ....... 35 15. Graetzs concept ........ 36 sixteen. The Charging of a Conductor in response to the Elastic Aether Theories ......... 37 III. KELVINS version OF THE AETHER 17. Kelvins version of the Quasi-rigid Aether .... forty 18. strong Gyrostat forty four 19. Liquid Gyrostat ........ forty eight 20. Liquid in Turbulent movement as Aether version .... fifty two IV. charm AND REPULSION OF PULSATING SPHERES 21. Nature of the matter fifty eight 22. A unmarried relocating Sphere ....... fifty nine 23. A Sphere at relaxation in a Liquid with a given movement ... 60 24. n Spheres ......... sixty one 25. Spheres ........ sixty two 26. remedy of the matter via Lagranges Equations . sixty five 27. Pearsons concept ........ sixty seven assets AND REFERENCES ...... 70 vii viii CONTENTS KINETICAL difficulties PAOR creation ......... seventy five bankruptcy I internal FRICTION AND SLIDING, taken care of HYDRODYNAMICALLY 1. Hydrodynamical Equations of an Incompressible Viscous Liquid . seventy seven 2. impact of Sliding upon a Liquid flowing in a Tube ... eighty three. The Dragging of a Liquid by way of a relocating Plate .... eighty one four. influence of Sliding on the subject of Translational movement of a Sphere in a Liquid ......... eighty three 5...
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Far from restricting our efforts to put questions to nature in the form of experiments, the notion of complementarity simply characterizes the answers we can receive by such inquiry, whenever the interaction between the measuring instruments and the objects forms an integral part of the phenomena. (PWNB 3, p. 4; emphasis added) As I noted in the introduction, this argumentation makes Bohr’s use itself of the term “complementarity” peculiar, since the word complementary usually indicates parts of or adding up to a whole, which is by definition impossible under the conditions of complementarity in Bohr’s sense.
Provisionally, I speak for the moment in terms of quantum objects themselves. Strictly speaking, we can only observe certain effects on the screen or physically equivalent macro-phenomena. Indeed all we have in any given event is a final trace of a “collision” on the screen. Everything else, the emission of the particle, its passing or not passing through slits, and so forth, is ascertained on the basis of other observations and measurements that we can perform in similar circumstances, each leading to an individual phenomena in Bohr’s sense.
50; PWNB 3, p. 3). This and related statements by Bohr may suggest that while parts of measuring instruments are described by means of classical physics, the behavior (in space and time) of quantum objects is described by means of quantum-mechanical formalism. Bohr obviously says the former, but he clearly does not ever say and does not mean the latter. It is an immediate consequence of Bohr’s argumentation that the behavior of quantum objects cannot be seen in terms of any formalism, classical or quantum-mechanical.
Lectures on theoretical physics by H.A. Lorentz