By Yang Leng
This booklet covers cutting-edge suggestions known in smooth fabrics characterization. vital points of characterization, fabrics buildings and chemical research, are integrated. customary options, comparable to metallography (light microscopy), X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, are defined. furthermore, the publication introduces complex innovations, together with scanning probe microscopy. the second one half the publication for this reason offers ideas equivalent to X-ray strength dispersive spectroscopy (commonly outfitted within the scanning electron microscope), fluorescence X-ray spectroscopy, and renowned floor research ideas (XPS and SIMS). eventually, vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman) and thermal research also are coated.
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Additional info for Materials Characterization: Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods
38 demonstrates that polarized light reveals the grains of pure titanium, which cannot be seen in the bright-field mode. 39 shows a polarized light micrograph of high density polyethylene that has been crystallized. Polarized light revealed fine spherulite structures caused by crystallization. An isotropic material (either with cubic crystal structure or amorphous) cannot change the plane orientation of polarizing light. When a polarized light wave leaves the material and passes through the analyzer in a crossed position, the light will be extinguished.
To acquire a 3D image of a specimen, the plane images at different vertical positions should also be recorded. A scanning device moves the focal laser spot in the x–y directions on the plane in a regular pattern called a raster. After finishing one scanning plane, the focal spot is moved in the vertical direction to scan a next parallel plane. 46 illustrates two different methods of scanning in CLSM: specimen and laser scanning. Specimen scanning was used in early confocal microscopes. 46a. The beam is always located at the optical axis in the microscope so that optical aberration is minimized.
The first DIC prism splits polarized light beam from the polarizer into two parallel beams traveling along different physical paths. 40, the second DIC prism recombines the pairs and produces linearly polarized light with the same polarization plane as it was before it was split by the first DIC prism. Thus, the analyzer in the crossed position with a polarizer will block light transmission. 40 Nomarski contrast generation using polarized light. The first differential interference contrast (DIC) prism (not shown) generates two parallel polarized beams illuminating the specimen.
Materials Characterization: Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods by Yang Leng