By Dave Reay
Methane is a robust greenhouse fuel and is predicted to be accountable for nearly one-fifth of artificial worldwide warming. in step with kilogram, it is twenty-five instances extra robust than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon – and international warming is probably going to reinforce methane free up from a few resources. present common and man-made assets comprise many the place methane-producing micro-organisms can thrive in anaerobic stipulations, really ruminant farm animals, rice cultivation, landfill, wastewater, wetlands and marine sediments.
This well timed and authoritative ebook offers the one entire and balanced evaluate of our present wisdom of resources of methane and the way those should be managed to restrict destiny weather swap. It describes how methane is derived from the anaerobic metabolism of micro-organisms, even if in wetlands or rice fields, manure, landfill or wastewater, or the digestive platforms of farm animals and different ruminant animals. It highlights how assets of methane may well themselves be laid low with weather switch. it truly is proven how a number of element resources of methane have the capability to be extra simply addressed than resources of carbon dioxide and hence give a contribution considerably to weather swap mitigation within the twenty first century.
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Extra resources for Methane and Climate Change
Stams, A. J. , Dijkema, C. and Boone, D. R. , Henstra, A. , Stams, A. J. M. and Plugge, C. M. (2008) ‘Syntrophic growth on formate: a new microbial niche in anoxic environments’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol 74, pp6126–6131 Drake, H. , Gössner, A. S. and Daniel, S. L. qxd 13/5/10 THE MICROBIOLOGY OF METHANOGENESIS 09:48 25 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 1125, pp100–128 Gottschalk, G. (1985) ‘Bacterial Metabolism’, 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, New York Hilton, M.
In these wet anaerobic environments, CH4 is formed through the microbial process of methanogenesis (see also Chapter 2). Methane formation follows from a complex set of ecosystem processes that begins with the primary fermentation of organic macromolecules to acetic acid, other carboxylic acids, alcohols, CO2 and hydrogen. This is then followed by the secondary fermentation of the alcohols and carboxylic acids to acetate, H2 and CO2, which are fully converted to CH4 by methanogenic bacteria (Cicerone and Oremland, 1988; Conrad, 1996).
H. (1996) ‘Clostridium ultunense sp. , a mesophilic bacterium oxidizing acetate in syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic bacterium’, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 46, pp1145–1152 Sousa, D. , Alves, M. M. and Stams. A. J. M. (2009) ‘Ecophysiology of syntrophic communities that degrade saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids’, FEMS Microbiology Ecology vol 68, pp257–272 Sprenger, W. , Hackstein, J. H. and Keltjens, J. T. (2005) ‘The energy metabolism of Methanomicrococcus blatticola: Physiological and biochemical aspects’, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol 87, pp289–299 Stams, A.
Methane and Climate Change by Dave Reay