By Fazlul H. Sarkar
Since the invention of microRNAs (miRNAs) a few two decades in the past by way of Victor Ambros, David Baulcombe and Gary Ruvkun, those 3 scientists labored to discover the secret of miRNA, the small segments of nucleotides that silence genes. whereas learning the improvement of the nematode bug, Ambros and Ruvkun found miRNA in animals, whereas Baulcombe came upon it in vegetation. due to the fact their discovery, it took greater than decade to totally enjoy the price of miRNA in human future health and illnesses. rising proof recommend that the activation of oncogenes and/or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes give a contribution to the improvement and development of tumors. The legislation of genes is via a ways managed through many transcription components that are usually deregulated in the course of the improvement and development of melanoma. moreover, rising facts essentially means that the deregulation of miRNAs or small non-coding RNAs can also keep an eye on the expression of genes and also, miRNA genes also are regulated through transcription components. the main beautiful function of miRNAs is that one miRNA can keep watch over many goal genes (mRNAs) and therefore miRNA specific treatment is extremely promising simply because a number of genes will be regulated via concentrating on a unmarried miRNA, which turns into vitally important for the killing of hugely heterogeneous populations of melanoma cells inside of a tumor mass. for this reason, miRNA detailed remedy is an enticing characteristic of miRNA examine, that's lined via eighteen chapters complied during this ebook “MicroRNA particular melanoma remedy” and it really is was hoping that the sector of miRNA learn should be liked via severe examining of those chapters at the state of the art study on miRNAs.
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Extra resources for MicroRNA Targeted Cancer Therapy
The four GBM subtypes have distinct molecular markers and three of the subtypes identified in this study were demonstrated to have a strong association with specific genomic alterations; the proneural subtype exhibiting IDH1 mutations and/or PDGFRA amplification, the classical subtype exhibiting amplification and/or mutation of EGFR, and the mesenchymal subtype showing loss and/or mutation of NF1. While additional subtypes likely exist, only the proneural and the mesenchymal GBMs have been consistently identified in both supervised and unsupervised classification of GBM and have been reported to have both prognostic and predictive values [12, 13].
Tan X, Wang S, Zhu L, Wu C, Yin B, Zhao J, Yuan J, Qiang B, Peng X (2012) cAMP response element-binding protein promotes gliomagenesis by modulating the expression of oncogenic microRNA-23a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15805–15810 32. Lian S, Shi R, Bai T, Liu Y, Miao W, Wang H, Liu X, Fan Y (2013) Anti-miRNA-23a oligonucleotide suppresses glioma cells growth by targeting apoptotic protease activating factor-1. Curr Pharm Des 19:6382–6389 33. Chen L, Han L, Zhang K, Shi Z, Zhang J, Zhang A, Wang Y, Song Y, Li Y, Jiang T, Pu P, Jiang C, Kang C (2012) VHL regulates the effects of miR-23b on glioma survival and invasion via suppression of HIF-1alpha/VEGF and beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling.
Various studies documented that miRNAs can act as tumor suppressor or oncogenes based on the function of their major target genes . In addition, they have been shown to regulate a variety of cellular functions such as cell proliferation, cell death and apoptosis, cell migration and invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, tumor microenvironment, tumor immunology and chemoresistance as well as many aspects of cancer stem cell biology [48–52, 59]. 4 miRNAs as Biomarkers in GBM Various studies have been performed to identify biological markers for the detection and risk stratification of gliomas.
MicroRNA Targeted Cancer Therapy by Fazlul H. Sarkar