By Brian Joseph Martin
Following the French Revolution, radical army reforms created stipulations for brand spanking new actual and emotional intimacy among infantrymen, developing a version of fraternal affection that may persist from the progressive and Napoleonic wars throughout the Franco-Prussian conflict and international struggle I.
Based on wide learn in French and American information, and enriched through his examining of Napoleonic army memoirs and French army fiction from Hugo and Balzac to Zola and Proust, Brian Joseph Martin's view features a large diversity of emotional and erotic relationships in French armies from 1789 to 1916. He argues that the French Revolution's emphasis on army fraternity advanced into an remarkable feel of camaraderie between squaddies within the armies of Napoleon. for plenty of infantrymen, the hardships of wrestle ended in intimate friendships. For a few, the homosociality of army lifestyles encouraged mutual affection, lifelong dedication, and homoerotic wish.
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Extra info for Napoleonic Friendship: Military Fraternity, Intimacy, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century France (Becoming Modern: New Nineteenth-Century Studies)
McGavock, the Southern WFMS grew to 70,000 members, supporting 38 foreign missionaries, 109 teachers and helpers, 11 Bible women, twelve boarding schools, and one hospital. 53 per member. 85 chapter 1: women’s missionary societies 49 The monies raised were reﬂective of the popularity of the missionary movement, and especially the Methodist society, for American women. The successes of both the Northern and Southern female societies had important ramiﬁcations with regard to relations with the Methodist Episcopal Board.
Unlike suffragists, who relied upon conservative tactics to compensate for radical goals, churchwomen could lead a more public existence because they were more often perceived as the embodiment of civic virtue. 4 Piety, or loving obedience and service to God and humanity, was the motivating force behind the activities of nineteenth-century Methodist women involved with missionary work. It was the core impetus for female missionaries in the ﬁeld who served as educators and medical workers, and those who organized, built and supported female missionary societies at home.
In 1846, graduates of the college delivered an address to their Alumnae Association and the result was a reorganization of that group into a Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society that would inspire student interest in missions. 23 Wheeler’s description of these female society members’ oratorical endeavors is at odds with Victorian America’s emphasis upon a woman’s social relatedness and the expectation that she work for the good of her society rather than herself. 25 Little is known of the ﬁrst Southern Methodist female effort at missionary work that began in 1824 when a home missionary society was organized in Jonesboro, Tennessee; however, women who established missionary societies during the 1830s were chronicled in female Methodist missionary histories.
Napoleonic Friendship: Military Fraternity, Intimacy, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century France (Becoming Modern: New Nineteenth-Century Studies) by Brian Joseph Martin