New PDF release: Nature's Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost

By Doug Macdougall

ISBN-10: 0520249755

ISBN-13: 9780520249752

"Radioactivity is sort of a clock that by no means wishes adjusting," writes Doug Macdougall. "It will be challenging to layout a extra trustworthy timekeeper." In Nature's Clocks, Macdougall tells how scientists who have been trying to comprehend the earlier arrived on the creative strategies they now use to figure out the age of items and organisms. through analyzing radiocarbon (C-14) dating—the most sensible identified of those methods—and a number of different strategies that geologists use to decode the far away earlier, Macdougall unwraps the final century's advances, explaining how they exhibit the age of our fossil ancestors reminiscent of "Lucy," the timing of the dinosaurs' extinction, and definitely the right a long time of tiny mineral grains that date from the start of the earth's historical past. In vigorous and available prose, he describes how the technology of geochronology has constructed and flourished. concerning those advances during the tales of the scientists themselves—James Hutton, William Smith, Arthur Holmes, Ernest Rutherford, Willard Libby, and Clair Patterson—Macdougall indicates how they used ingenuity and idea to build one in every of glossy science's most vital accomplishments: a timescale for the earth's evolution and human prehistory.

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Extra info for Nature's Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost Everything

Sample text

But gradually, as the phenomenon of radioactivity became better understood and more old rocks were dated, most scientists came to accept that the Earth really must be very ancient. There were a few holdouts who for a long time believed that there must be some flaw in the new dating techniques. But, by the middle of the twentieth century, these voices had been drowned out by the success of the approach. As older and older dates were reported, it really did seem that Hutton’s “no vestige of a beginning” might be almost literally true.

But their approach was even more problematic. These scientists had to estimate the total volume of sedimentary rocks that had accumulated over the whole of the Earth’s history, and then divide this number by the amount of sediments being formed annually today. Accurately measuring or estimating these quantities was very difficult, and the exercise involved multiple assumptions. Nevertheless, several such calculations were published, and they typically gave ages in the range of 50 to 100 million years.

Today the site is a mecca for visiting geologists. It can be found easily, just a stone’s throw from the Scottish Parliament buildings, on a hillside in the royal estate that is now an enormous park within the city of Edinburgh. Hutton also recognized that the features geologists refer to as unconformities, which are preserved ancient erosion surfaces, constituted strong evidence that his theory was correct. A sketch drawn by his friend John Clerk (another of the Edinburgh intellectuals, Clerk wrote a classic book on naval warfare and was eventually knighted) shows one of the unconformities Hutton visited near the Scottish town of Jedburgh (see figure 2).

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Nature's Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost Everything by Doug Macdougall

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